The Right Action

Based on Nehemiah 1, we see that Nehemiah received some bad news about Judea. His action shows us how we should act after experiencing something bad in our lives. We see that the right action was pleasing to God. See the below video for the story and life lessons.

The Power of One Word

thecross[2]The old saying, “sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me” was used when I was a child and still is to help children understand that words should be ignored because, in theory, words do not do lasting harm. It’s sad to say that this is not the case. For many, words that they have been subjected to have crippled them emotionally and psychologically. Labels that were put on them or words that they have heard such as loser, slut, retard, and the like have done lasting harm.

In the book of James, the author addresses the struggle we all have with taming our tongues. James 3 speaks about how the tongue at one moment can be used to praise our God and the other be used to accident. For us humans, taming the way we use our words will be a life long struggle that only God Himself can help us through. I’ve heard and read stories of people who have had their lives destroyed by poorly used words. A single moment in time is relived time and time again as they struggle to live their lives. This post is not a how to bridle or tame our tongue, but to show that where a word or a moment in time can harm people there is a word and moment in time that we (all of mankind) have been set free from the bondage of sin.

We are fast approaching Easter. It’s late this year, almost landing in May. Easter Sunday sermons, in my opinion, should focus on the day Christ defeated death and hell by resurrecting from the dead. Because He beat Satan and took the keys of death and hell, we can be free from the bondage of sin and have a positive future looking forward to an eternality with Him in heaven. The moment of time I speak of is what we call Good Friday. The location is the hill we know as Calvary or Golgotha. At this moment in history, the God-Man Jesus Christ is hanging on a cross with His skin shredded from the cat-of-nine tails whip used on Him. His face covered in blood from the crown of thorns on His head. This Man struggles with every breath His breaths. He was enduring the curse of sin in our place. He is paying the sin-debt for all of humanity. In that moment He says His last word. Jesus Christ- the God-Man, the perfect Lamb of God, the Son of Man, the King of Kings, and the Lord of Lords-yells out “tetelestai!” and dies.

This Greek word in English is the phrase, “IT IS FINISHED!” The book of John records this; John writes in John 19:28-30;

28 After this, Jesus, knowing that all things had already been accomplished, to fulfill the Scripture, said, “I am thirsty.” 29 A jar full of sour wine was standing there; so they put a sponge full of the sour wine upon a branch of hyssop and brought it up to His mouth. 30 Therefore when Jesus had received the sour wine, He said, “It is finished!” And He bowed His head and gave up His spirit.

Just as a single word can destroy, this single word from Jesus changed eternity. This single word saved me at the young age of 7 and this single word has given me purpose. This single word can save you. In my study of the Greek language, I’ve learned that a single Greek word will have different meanings. The word Jesus used (tetelestai) in John 19:30 has 5 meanings. I will share each to help us understand how powerful Jesus’ last word is to us and why we should care.

The first meaning is Mission Accomplished; Jesus was saying that He completed the job His Father gave Him to do. A servant used the word tetelestai to communicate that a task was completed. Slavery was common in those days. It was different from early US slavery. Many were in debt, and indentured as servants to masters to whom they owed money. They would be assigned a task, and when completed, they would return to their master and say tetelestai, the task is completed. “I did what you told me to do, in the way you told me to do it.” In John 17:4, [Jesus prayed to His Father…] “I glorified You on the earth, having accomplished the work which You have given Me to do.” We should aspire to someday be able to say mission accomplished to the Father.

The second meaning is Perfect Sacrifice. Tetelestai was a priestly word meaning a Perfect Sacrifice. This word was taken right out of Old Testament worship. It involved the ritual system of animal sacrifices. God gave Israel the animal sacrifice system for a time. The priest would examine the lambs brought for sacrifice, for they had to be without spot or blemish, so as to be a good picture of Jesus, the sinless Lamb of God Who was to come. First, the priest would look in the lamb’s mouth for anything wrong there. He would next examine the eyelids, and the ears, the hooves, and so on until the whole body was looked over. He was looking for imperfections. He would then run his hands through the wool, looking for any dark hair. The wool had to be pristine white to qualify. Once a lamb was qualified, the priest would hold it up and say [what would be translated in the Greek] tetelestai; this is a perfect sacrifice! It is finished. This is an acceptable sacrifice! And when Jesus uttered tetelestai on the cross, He was qualified to do so as the perfect Lamb of God!

The third meaning is Masterpiece. I’m not painter in an artist sense, but I can paint a wall. I used to be a professional painter and even sold paint for a living when Teresa and I were first married. The Greek artisans were masters and led their world in creativity. And when the last stroke of paint was applied to the canvas, or the last piece of marble was chiseled away, he would stand back and say tetelestai. In other words, he was saying, “Now this is a masterpiece!” When I was younger, I would watch Bob Ross on PBS. I’ve actually see these old episodes are on Netflix now. As he painted he would say “Let’s put a happy little tree over here. And a pretty little bird in this tree.” It was amazing how he could complete a painting in 30 minutes. And the first time you see him do it there’s a surreal moment you witness, because though you’ve been watching him delicately work creative magic, he would now and then reach over and grab a big glob of paint and slop it on the canvas. “Oh no, he just ruined it!” you’d think. But no, he would skillfully manipulate that glob in beautiful strokes.

When Jesus died on the cross, it didn’t fit in at all with what the disciples had pictured. His crucifixion was a big glob of paint slopped onto what was, up to that time, a work of art that they thought was coming together so well. It was ruined! But God was working on His masterpiece! We try to paint a rosy picture of our lives, and just when it looks like things are coming together a big glob of dark colors comes splashing down; the blues of depression; the grays of confusion; the black of grief; and suddenly it’s all your eye can see. Then enters God working it all together for good. And you step back and watch Him work, and you realize that the dark colors are just as important as the bright pastels! One day it will all come into focus. Maybe here on earth or maybe not until heaven. But God Himself will say, tetelestai, my masterpiece is completed!

The fourth meaning is Fully in Paid. The word tetelestai is a merchant’s word meaning paid in full. In business transactions, a man who owed his creditor would pay his bill. And the merchant would write across the bill tetelestai; paid in full. Jesus took our sin debt and wrote ‘paid in full!’ on our bill of sale for our souls. We’re not going to heaven because God has overlooked our sins, turned a blind eye, or swept them under the rug. The sin debt must be paid, and Jesus paid for our sin so we won’t have to! [All bold this so you can see it] Your sin will either be pardoned in Christ or punished in hell! Why choose to continue on the path to hell, where you’ll have to pay for your sins, when Jesus paid it all? Romans 6:23 says; “For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.” What Jesus did on the cross, by shedding His blood, we are all able to receive this gift. Question; how to you receive a gift? By accepting it; by taking it. It’s that simple. For some, it’s too simple. They feel they have to do something to earn it but we cannot. Just accept this gift that Jesus paid for.

The fifth and final meaning is A Victory Cry. This word was used in battle. When the battle was over, the soldier would report to the general that the victory was won by saying, “tetelestai.” This just gets better and better. Jesus went head to head with the devil in his own backyard. Satan has many names and one of them is the “god of this world;” the earth is his domain. Jesus faced Satan, not in the form of God, but as a man, and He turned the tables on that slimy serpent, crushing his head with the very heel he had nailed to the cross. He did that on the cross when He said tetelestai, the battle is over, and the victory has been won! Jesus won the victory over death, hell, and the grave – and then He gives that victory to us. This is good because without this victory, natural man faces death, the grave takes the body, and hell awaits the soul. Jesus fought this battle for you, and it’s already over. Now, we only face the shadow of death as Christians, for the battle is already finished, and the war has been won!

Just as a single bad moment or bad word could affect how a person feels or waste affect the rest of their lives, a positive moment or word will do something amazing. People need encouragement throughout their day and lives. What better moment in history or better word to share with others. Two thousand years ago on Good Friday, the God-Man took our sins on Himself so we can have a relationship with the God of the universe. And with one word, He changed eternity for all of us. Now that is a powerful word.

 

Great Expectations

Difficult choices of a businessman

Charles Dickens’ novel Great Expectations is a classic. The novel tells the story of the orphan Pip and how he goes from being a poor child to being given wealth. The source of this wealth is never told him so he is left to wonder who might have given him this money. We, as the readers, are left in the beginning to wonder as well. We are introduced to a crazy wealthy older lady in the early part of the novel so the assumption or expectation is that she is the source; however, we find out that the prisoner Pip came into connect with early in the novel was the source.

There are expectations on all people. If you are a father, you are expected to love and care for your children. If you are a husband, the expectation is that you love and protect your wife. An employee has the expectation of being paid for your work, and a boss has the expectation that their employees will earn the pay they receive. Everyone has expectations.

When I counsel a couple wanting to be married, I encourage them to make a wish list. I call it the Expectation List. It’s actually a list of assumptions. A woman will expect that their future husband will be or do certain things and not do certain things. A man has a similar list of his future wife. These expectations or needs go unmet because most of the time they are not shared. For an example, the future wife assumes her future husband will pay the bills because her father had that job in her family; however, the future husband has no idea of this and in his family his mom paid the bills so he is expecting his future wife will do this task. The future wife’s expectation goes unmet because the communication is lacking and so does the future husband’s. When this happens a fight is the result. I think when the list is made and shared way before the marriage starts, each member of the future marriage team knows what the expectations of each other. Before the marriage is when to hash these roles out so nothing is lacking.

A job description for a pastor is basically a list of expectations a church has what their pastor should be and do. Because of my Spiritual gift of Administration/Leadership, I feel a job description is a must. Saying that, I also feel a pastor should share an expectation list with the church they are leading. What I think happens more time than it should, a member gets their feelings hurt because they have an expectation that a pastor will visit them if they have a hangnail but the pastor has an expectation that a deacon can and should make that visit. On the flip-side, a pastor can get frustrated because he has an expectation that the members will follow the Biblical teaching of tithing but only a small percentage actually do the practice. A pastor can and should share what the Bible has to say about how God’s people should act and what they do. I call this Biblical Expectations.

I think in any relationship, when expectations are shared and known helps it function like it should. Knowing what each person in a marriage thinks about certain things will help each person have a good or better understanding of the other. Having a job description in place at any job, helps all parties involved. When a church shares their expectations with their pastor and a pastor sharing his with the people, it helps prevents any assumptions and hurting of feelings. God has shared His expectations to man-kind; these expectations are found in the Bible.

 

In the Midst of the Storm

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Hurricanes are a way of life for us in eastern coast of VA. These storms are a pain when they come, but we know that Hurricane season is between June 1st and November 30th. During this period, we can expect to be in danger of having one or more come our way. We had a near miss with Florence and we saw how Michael hit Florida hard in just the last 2 months. Did you know that hurricanes are needed? Without an occasional hurricane, the world’s weather might be even worse. It’s true; the fierce tropical storms regulate the heat balance between the tropics and Polar Regions. The tropics and subtropics receive more heat from the sun than they lose by radiation. To prevent cooling of the poles and scorching of the equatorial regions hurricanes help keep the balance. There is one thing worse than a known or planned storms; a storm that comes out of nowhere. Even with the technology we have today, a surprise storm still does appear out of nowhere from time to time. Michael was such a storm. It came out of nowhere and was fast.

None of us gets through life without experiencing a storm! In fact, most lives contain more than one storm which threatens our entire state of well-being. Storms take many different forms and affect our lives in many different ways, but all storms contain some common elements: they usually come on suddenly, they take us by surprise, they tend to fill our hearts with fear, and they test our faith. These storms of life become building blocks of faith which actually equip us for the storms which are yet to come.

Here are some common storms. Some of us have either gone through them already or will have them sometime in our lives. The storms of life are the storm of illness (sudden or prolonged); the storm of death (the death of a loved one, a child, a partner; especially one not expected to die); the storm of rejection (divorce, separation, abandonment); the storm of unjust criticism; the storm of emotional trauma (being hatred, anger, resentment, bitterness); the storm of physical loss (loss of home, loss of job, loss of money, loss of security); and the storm of an accident, or some event which may change the course of our life in an instant. Being Christians, we aren’t exempt from the storms of life. Even though we aren’t exempt from storms, we know the master of the storms.

John 6:14-21 shows an event in the life of the disciples that can teach us how to handle the storms that come out way. John 6:14-21 says;

16 Now when evening came, His disciples went down to the sea, 17 and after getting into a boat, they started to cross the sea to Capernaum. It had already become dark, and Jesus had not yet come to them. 18 The sea began to be stirred up because a strong wind was blowing. 19 Then, when they had rowed about three or four miles, they saw Jesus walking on the sea and drawing near to the boat; and they were frightened. 20 But He said to them, “It is I; do not be afraid.” 21 So they were willing to receive Him into the boat, and immediately the boat was at the land to which they were going.

 

When reading or studying the Bible, it is always helpful to read a section within the content we find it. The event in verses 16 through 21 is sandwiched between the feeding of the 5,000 (with the 2 fish and 5 bread loaves) and Jesus’ teaching of being the “Bread of Life.” We can see 4 facts in John 6:14-21 to help us weather the storms that come our way in our life. They are Jesus sent them into the storm, Jesus, though unseen, was with the disciples in the storm, Jesus came to them in the midst of the storm, and Jesus got them safely through the storm.

Our first fact is Jesus sent them into the storm. Now this may be hard for some to understand. You might being thinking, “Isn’t Jesus the one who is supposed to protect us from the storms of life?” After all, doesn’t He say in Matthew 10:31 that “not one sparrow falls to the ground apart from your Father’s will. The very hairs of your head are all numbered?” But if you check the context of that verse, it is not a promise of freedom from trials or storms of life. It was given to comfort the disciples as he warned them of the cost of being His followers. He was far from assuring them of exemptions from storms; that verse was comforting them that the storms of life would not overwhelm them.

So why would Jesus send His disciples out into a storm? There are 2 possibilities. One possible reason Jesus sent them into the storm was to protect them from temptation. John 6:15 says, “Therefore when Jesus perceived that they were about to come and take Him by force to make Him king, He departed again to the mountain by Himself alone.” After Jesus feed the crowd, they wanted to make him their king. This desire of the crowd was not a temptation to Jesus. He knew what others did not yet understand. He knew that He was the Messiah, the King, but He knew that His kingdom was not what the Jews were really looking for. They were seeking a political leader of pomp and power, to lead them against Rome. He knew that they were far more concerned about the tyranny of Rome than they were concerned about the tyranny of sin. Jesus spoke continuously about his kingdom – the kingdom of heaven or the Kingdom of God.

Jesus did know that this desire of the crowd could be a huge temptation to his disciples. Here was the height of success! The disciples saw the huge crowds following their master; they saw his miracles of healing and multiplication of food; and now the people want to crown their master as King! This is the ultimate goal for anyone, right? The disciples weren’t mature enough to distinguish popularity from success. That sounds a lot like us, doesn’t it? Popularity is the fact people like and approve of you, but being a success means to attain a desired objective.

In this passage, the objective of the people was 180 degree opposite to the objective of Jesus. The crowd wanted Him to be the leader to free them from Rome, but His objective was to free them from the dominion of sin. Because Jesus knew this about His disciples, He sent them away in the boat while he sent the crowds away and went up into the mountain to pray.

Another possible reason Jesus sent the disciples into the storm was to teach them to trust Him more. This is not the first storm that they had been in. Just a few months before, they had been on this same sea with Jesus. That time Jesus was asleep in the boat when the storm was so bad that they thought they were going to drown. When they woke him up, He had stopped the storm immediately and then asked them why they were so fearful. So they had some experience with His power over the waves, and here was another opportunity for them to trust him. God will send us through storms to build our reliance on Him; to teach us that we can trust Him.

This reminds me a story I read about a father and son who went out in the country to enjoy some outdoor activities. They climbed around in some cliffs. While enjoying the moment, the dad heard a voice from above him yell, “Hey Dad! Catch me!” He turned around to see his son joyfully jumping off a rock straight at him. He had jumped and then yelled “Hey Dad!” The scene instantly turned into circus act; the dad catches the son. They both fell to the ground. For a moment after the dad caught the son, the dad could hardly talk. Once the dad calmed his nerves, he asked “Son! Can you give me one good reason why you did that?” The son responded with remarkable calmness: “Sure…because you’re my Dad.” The boy’s whole assurance was based in the fact that his father was trustworthy. The son in this story could live life to the hilt because his dad could be trusted. Isn’t this even truer for us Christians?

Our second fact is Jesus, though unseen, was with the disciples in the storm. This was no small rain the disciples were caught in. The Sea of Galilee is 600 feet below sea level. It is surrounded by hills, especially on the north, and down the east side, with mountains behind them. Deep rifts are cut through the hills down which the winds may naturally flow. As the air at water level is heated it rises swiftly, and cold air from the mountains and hills flows down through these cuts to turn a calm sea into a wavy violent storm in an instant. They had been rowing against this wind for several hours and still were far from shore. But while they were struggling on the sea, Jesus was praying up in the hills.

You see the storm was known to Jesus on the mountain. While they were struggling in their rowing against the teeth of the storm and the waves, Jesus was praying on the mountain. While his prayer may have chiefly concerned his future even to the cross, still I am sure that he also prayed for the disciples in the boat. The man Jesus Christ was Omniscient so He knew what was happening on the sea while He on up in the mountains praying. Nothing could happen to the disciples unless Jesus allowed it.

Now this experience should tell us something about the storms which we experience. Storms, while not enjoyed, serve a worthwhile purpose in our lives. Not all of our tests are earth shattering, life changing proportions. Most of our difficulties are relatively small, yet annoying. But if we can learn to trust Jesus in these distractions, it will strengthen our faith in daily living. Our storms allow us to grow in our relationship with Christ.

Romans 5:3-5 says, “And not only this, but we also exult in our tribulations, knowing that tribulation brings about perseverance; and perseverance, proven character; and proven character, hope; and hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out within our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us.”

According to Romans 5, tribulation or troubles produce endurance; this endurance produces character; that character contributes to a new sense of hope, and this hope doesn’t disappoint because the love of God has been poured out in our hearts by the Holy Spirit who has been given to us. It’s like falling dominoes. When I was kid, I thought when people played the dominoes, they were actually setting up the dominoes and watching them fall. It wasn’t until I was older until I learned how to the play the actual domino game. When I was a kid, I’d set up the dominoes to watch them fall in neat ways. You see one domino falling affects the next one in line and so on until they all fall.

The storms that come our way should have a domino effect in our lives. These storms should produce endurance, and this endurance reveals our character (or who we are when no one is around), our character reveals our hope. This hope is what God has given us in Jesus Christ. You may not like storms, but you need the storms. Storms cause us to depend on Jesus Christ for help, especially when you cannot really help yourself. Storms not only demonstrate to others that you are a person of faith but they demonstrate to yourself that you have more faith than you even realize.

The Christian life is passed from one person to another, from life to life, so we can serve as an example of steadfastness and trust in Jesus while those who are younger in Christ can learn as they watch us in our storms. It’s like our children. They will react to things in their life the way they have seen us react to things. Good, bad, or indifferent.

It is important to remember that even though Jesus appeared to be absent when the disciples were struggling against the storm, He was well aware of what they were experiencing. The same is said when you are struggling through the storms you are in; He is with you. Nothing can happen to you unless He allows it.

Our third fact is Jesus came to them in the midst of the storm. While they were struggling with the oars and worn out after hours of effort, Jesus came to them over the water. We read this event and have heard it so many times before, we tend to forget Jesus walking on the water required the suspension of what we call “the laws of nature.” In studying this miracle it is important for us to remember that Jesus Christ is the One who created the heavens and the earth, and made the water in this sea. He’s the One who established the laws of nature. It was no more difficult for him to walk on the water than to make wine out of water or to multiply the 5 loaves and 2 fish. Though Jesus Christ was fully man, and submissive to the laws of nature, He was also God who could over rule those laws.

In Matthew’s account of this miracle, Peter asked that he might come to Jesus on the water and Jesus invited him to do so. Jesus also suspended the laws of nature to allow Peter to walk on the water. We’re not sure how many steps Peter took but he walked on water until he took his eyes off Jesus and panicked.

The disciples still didn’t grasp the extent of Jesus’ power and thought He was a ghost and were frightened. To reassure them Jesus identified himself in a very simple way; “It is I, don’t be afraid.” We see that they took him into the boat once they realized who was coming to them.

The best part about reading about the disciples is that we can see ourselves; don’t we? They are trying to rely on their own strength to battle through the storm. We do the same thing. We try to suck it up and battle the storms on our own. Remember, 2/3 of this group were fishermen who lived all their lives on the water. They figured they knew how to handle the situation; this wasn’t their first storm. They didn’t know that Jesus was with them all along, because they couldn’t see Him. When we get into a situation we aren’t familiar with, we often forget that Jesus is with us, too.

There is a poem called Footprints in the Sand that was help illustrate this idea what Jesus is always with us; through the good and especially through the bad times.

“One night I dreamed I was walking along the beach with the Lord. Many scenes from my life flashed across the sky.

In each scene I noticed footprints in the sand. Sometimes there were two sets of footprints, other times there was one only.

This bothered me because I noticed that during the low periods of my life, when I was suffering from anguish, sorrow or defeat, I could see only one set of footprints, so I said to the Lord,

“You promised me Lord, that if I followed you, you would walk with me always. But I have noticed that during the most trying periods of my life there has only been one set of footprints in the sand. Why, when I needed you most, have you not been there for me?”

The Lord replied, “The years when you have seen only one set of footprints, my child, is when I carried you.”’

When we realize we need help, we cry out to Him. When we ask for help, He’s there every time because He’s always with us. When we realize He’s with us, our fears are calmed, and we approach our situation with a new sense of confidence and peace. Not confidence in our abilities but confidence that Jesus does what He says He’ll do.

The fourth and final fact is Jesus got them safely through the storm. The last sentence of this passage is interesting. Verse 21 says, “So they were willing to receive Him into the boat, and immediately the boat was at the land to which they were going.” The Gospels of Matthew and Mark also include the walking on the water and the calming of the storm. Same accounts with different vantage points.

The account in John serves to show the calming effect that Jesus’ presence has on His disciples.

You see, before the disciples left to go on the water they had experienced a mountaintop event seeing Jesus feeding the 5,000 people. The fear of the storm yanked them back down to reality hard. They went from one extreme of a highest of the high to being terrified for their lives. They had a taste of success which could lead to overconfidence and a sense of pride in oneself. The storm showed these 12 men that they were just human; small in comparison to nature and all its power. When they were at their whit’s end and their power almost completely spent, Jesus came and calmed the storm and showed He was with them. He was the One who feed the people (not they) and He was the One who can secure them (not they).

So what can we learn from this event? One thing is certain, we do face, we have faced, and we will face storms in our lives. Such storms usually come suddenly, often unexpectedly, and frequently without preparation. Such storms usually trigger fear in our hearts; they usually emphasize our complete helplessness and leave us with nowhere to turn unless we are walking in complete dependence upon God. But the storms of life do not need to overwhelm us. If you are a Christian, if you have trusted Jesus as your Savior and Lord, then you have a wonderful promise in the Word of God.

Paul writes in Romans 8:28 “And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to [His] purpose.” When we are in the storms of life, we can rest assured that we are not alone.

The eye of a storm is the calmest part of any storm. It is surrounded by the eye-wall, a ring of towering thunderstorms where the most severe weather and highest winds occur. The eye of the storm can be as much as 15 percent lower in intensity than the outer wall of the storm. In strong tropical storms, the eye is characterized by light winds and clear skies, surrounded on all sides by a towering eye-wall. In all storms, the eye is the location where the storm is at its calmest.

Just as in our passage, Jesus not only calmed the sea and storm, but in actuality He calmed the hearts of the disciples. The disciples went from being fearful for their lives to peace; the peace that only Jesus can offer. The presence of Jesus in our lives allows us to have peace; the peace that all the world wants but does not have. If you are in a storm right now and feel all alone, Jesus Christ is with you. You may not feel Him but He is with you. He will see you through whatever you are going through.

 

 

 

 

 

Resources

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One of the main reasons I write this blog is to equip those who follow Christ to grow in their walk with Him. In the spirit of this, below are the resources I used in writing the I Am series of posts. My desire is for you (the reader) to check these out and maybe start your own research of the many gold nuggets of truth in the Gospel of John. Thank you for reading. God bless.

Boyd, Gregory A. and Paul R. Eddy. Across the Spectrum: Understanding Issues in Evangelical Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2009.

Burge, Gary M.. The NIV Application Commentary of John. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2000.

Kostenberger J. Andreas. Encountering John. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 1999.

Morris, Leon. Jesus is the Christ: Studies in the Theology of John. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1989.

Townes, Elmer. The Gospel of John: Believe and Live. Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers, 2002.